Using data collected from 107 pairs of identical and 89 pairs of fraternal female twins this study examined the genetic and environmental associations between transformational leadership and leadership role occupancy. Results show that 78% of the covariance between the two leadership variables was attributable to overlapping genetic factors while 22% of the covariance to overlapping environmental factors. In particular 13% (2%) of the variance in leadership role occupancy was accounted for by the same genetic (environmental) factors related to transformational leadership. Unique sets of genetic and environmental variables which are not associated with transformational leadership explained 16% and 69% of the variance in leadership role occupancy respectively. The results suggest that multiple manifestations of leadership (i.e. transformational leadership and leadership role occupancy) are differentially heritable. Although the association between these two variables is largely due to overlapping genetic rather than environmental factors unique (i.e. non-overlapping) genetic and environmental influences still play an important role in impacting these leadership variables.
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