Hardiness is conceptualized as the courage that protects against such effects of denial and avoidance of life’s stressors as internet addiction excessive consumer spending and gambling. Also relevant protections may be grit and emotional intelligence (EI). This study compares the relative effectiveness of these three aspects of personality on the negative performance considerations mentioned. All the measures of personality and performance were completed by a sample of undergraduates. The results showed that as expected hardiness was a better negative predictor of internet addiction and excessive consumer spending than were grit and emotional intelligence. There is also some indication that hardiness was also a better protection against gambling.
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