The recent surge of research on gender and leadership is remarkable. A Web of Science search for articles in this area estimated approximately 3000 published journal articles since 1970, 38% of which have publication dates of 2010 or later.1 This growth demonstrates the rising academic interest in women as leaders, which accompanies growing public interest and widespread agitation for women's inclusion in the ranks of powerholders. Organizations such as 2020 Women on Boards (https://www.2020wob.com/) advocate for women in business leadership, and groups such as Emily's List (http://emilyslist.org/) support female candidates for political offices. The increasing visibility of female leaders—including Hillary Clinton as a potential President of the United States and Christine Lagarde as the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund—has intensified this interest. Although media have concentrated on women achieving political offices and high-level corporate positions, questions about women as leaders have emerged across many types of organizations (see Vinnicombe, Burke, Blake-Beard, & Moore, 2013). In a period when public opinion appears to favor more women in leadership roles (e.g., Pew Research Center, 2015), the perpetual question remains: Why aren't there more women leaders?
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