Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational transactional leadership theory

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Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational transactional leadership theory
The Leadership Quarterly

Leaders must scan the internal and external environment chart strategic and task objectives and provide performance feedback. These instrumental leadership (IL) functions go beyond the motivational and quid-pro quo leader behaviors that comprise the full-range—transformational transactional and laissez faire—leadership model. In four studies we examined the construct validity of IL. We found evidence for a four-factor IL model that was highly prototypical of good leadership. IL predicted top-level leader emergence controlling for the full-range factors initiating structure and consideration. It also explained a unique variance in outcomes beyond the full-range factors; the effects of transformational leadership were vastly overstated when IL was omitted from the model. We discuss the importance of a “fuller full-range” leadership theory for theory and practice. We also showcase our methodological contributions regarding corrections
for common method variance (i.e. endogeneity) bias using two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression and Monte Carlo split-sample designs.

Citation: 
The Leadership Quarterly 25 (2014) 746 – 771

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