Understanding institutional systems is critical for the advancement of women's participation in leadership in varying contexts. A unique and global analysis of the contextual factors that affect women in political leadership this paper extends prior research in the field. This is a cross-country study where we ask “How are societal-level institutional forces related to women's participation in political leadership?” We collected data from 8 secondary sources on 181 countries and conducted linear regression analyses with six institutional influences: the business environment societal development the economic environment physical and technological infrastructure political freedom and culture. Results indicate that to increase the political leadership participation of women we need to evaluate the following: customs and trade regulations graft the gender gap in political empowerment public spending on education the economic viability of the country access to power and the internet political freedom and cultural variables like performance orientation collectivism and power distance.
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